ISSN: 2658-9346 | Articles Submission's Deadline is November 30, 2020

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الكتاب العربي السنوي للقانون الدولي
دعوة للمشاركة في نسخة 2020-2021
آخر أجل لاستقبال الأوراق البحثية هو 30 نونبر 2020
Arab Journal of International Law
Call for papers - ARJIL 2020- 2021
Deadline : November 30, 2020
Revue Arabe de Droit International
appel à contribution - ARJIL 2020 - 2021
Date limite: 30 novembre 2020

Tuesday, 10 November 2020

Call for Papers to the attention of doctoral student interested in the subject of international law of the sea

ARJIL TM

The Editorial Committee of the Arab Journal of International Law (ARJIL) launches the present call for papers to the attention of doctoral student interested in the subject of international law of the sea. It is an opportunity for doctoral student to familiarize themselves with the methodology of research, and also broaden their professional and academic network.

The oceans and seas are not ruled by a legal vacuum. On the contrary, there is a specific branch of international law[i] dedicated to them, namely the international law of the sea[ii], whose goal is to provide some rules in the conflicting relationships between States and the other physical or juridical persons in the sea.[iii]

Its historic evolution was motivated by political, economic and security interests, and more recently scientific and environmental interests, which have paved to the way to conflicting claims on the exercise of exclusive rights (sovereign and jurisdictional) by States.

Of utmost importance in the international law of the sea is the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (1982), described as “the constitution of oceans”.[iv] It provided two fundamental principles. The first concerns the principle of the freedom of navigation in the high sea, advanced by the Dutch scholar Hugo Grotius whose book “mare liberum sive de jure quod batavis competit ad indicana commercial” published in 1609[v], claimed the right to navigate and trade for any ships throughout the world.[vi] The second principle is related to the sovereignty. The Convention was thus regarded as a “gift box” for coastal States which clearly appear as the winners of the United Nations third conference on the law of the sea. Indeed, until 200 miles away from its coast, a State is not bound to establish that it has some sovereign rights, provided that it has demarcated its zone under the conditions provided by the Convention with its neighbouring or adjacent States. Once these questions are resolved, a State possesses an exclusive economic zone until 200 miles which includes the continental shelf whatever its nature and the seabed. Moreover, the coastal State may request the extension of the continental shelf until 350 miles, provided it complies with the procedure provided by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (Article 76, Annex II)[vii].

The application of the sovereignty principle may lead to a series of conflicting extension of the limits of national jurisdiction on the seabed. As far as the principle of freedom is concerned, it contributes to an abusive exploitation of natural resources qualified by the approach of “first come, first served”. Two scenarios, which according to M. Pardo, might cause undesirable consequences, namely economic injustice and risks of pollution. It is perfectly summarized as “the poor are getting poorer and poorer, the rich are getting richer and richer” [viii]. In order to create a “trilogy of needs”, between the needs of the industrialized countries, the needs of developing countries, and the needs of marine ecosystem, a fourth principle appeared, that is the world heritage of humanity enshrined in the part XI of the Convention.[ix]

In this context, the department “Seas and Oceans” submits to the interested doctoral student a non-exhaustive list of subjects which may guide to their submission. The department welcomes submissions which focus on the realities of the Arab World and the Mediterranean:

§  Delimitation and demarcation of maritime boundaries

§  Use of marine ecosystem (included the navigation)

§  Preservation of marine ecosystem

§  Marine scientific research

§  Geostrategic use of maritime zone (included MENA zone)

§  Legal Protection of maritime zone in the Arab countries

§  Coordination between scientific research and the development of Maghreb countries

Method of submission

§  The proposed submissions will be subjected to an evaluation by the editorial committee (a draft proposal of 500 words maximum)

§  The proposed submissions may be communicated in French, Arabic, and English

§  Only the proposal (unpublished) based on the scientific norms and documentation will be accepted .

§  The papers will be subjected to double blind peer review.

§  The proposals shall be in Word format, and accompanied by the author’s biography (PDF)

§  The proposals shall contain between 4000 and 4500 words (Times New Roman)

 

References

§  Books: Name of the author, the title (the place of publication: editor, date of publication).

§  Journals: Name of the author, the title of the article, the title of the journal (the place of publication: editor, date of publication).

§  Electronic resources: Only websites internationally known will be accepted (i.e. United Nations). Shall be indicated: the title of the website and the date of consultation. The URL is mandatory.

 

Structure

§  Introduction: It shall incorporate briefly the keywords, the methodology adopted and the main question of the article.

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§  Conclusion: It shall contain the main results. It shall not be a mere summary of the paper. No references in the conclusion.

Important Remarks

§  The ARJIL forbids any counterfeiting or illegal reproduction.

§  The publications of ARJIL do not necessarily reflect the opinions of its founders

§  The deadline for the submission of the final propositions and the brief paper is January, 31ST 2021

§  The proposal shall be forwarded to the following email: arjil.org@gmail.com

 

Mohamed Benchekroun

Director of the Department “Seas and Oceans”

Phone: +212 0666255383

Professor Elhoucine Chougrani

Director of the Arab Journal of International Law (ARJIL)

Arjil.org@gmail.com

 

 

 

 



[i] André Monaco, Gouvernance des mers et des océans, Publisher by  ISTE (May 2, 2015)  p.22

[ii] Frederique Vallo,  La Mer et son droit, entre liberté et consensualisme, la difficile protection des espaces naturels fragiles, Publisher by Publibook (15 décembre 2009), p.12

 

[iii] Ibid

[iv] Donald Rothwell, The Oxford Handbook of the Law of the Sea, Publisher by OUP Oxford (2017), p.3

[v] Jill Barrett, Law of the Sea: UNCLOS as a Living Treaty.

[vi] GROTIUS (They marine), la liberté des mers /Mare Liberum, avec une introduction de Charles Leben, 2013, Coll. « Les introuvables ». In Annuaire française de droit international, volume 59, 2013, p.695

[vii] Hugo Grotius, Mare liberum, Create Space Independent Publishing by Platform (6 September 2012)

[viii] Intervention d'Élie Jarmache, Chargé de mission au secrétariat général de la mer, dirige la délégation française à la commission des limites du plateau continental à New York, membre de la commission juridique et technique de l’Autorité internationale des fonds marins, au colloque "Les enjeux maritimes du monde et de la France" du 20 mars 2017.

 

[ix] Tulio Scovazz,  “ The Concept of Common Heritage of Mankind  and the Genetic Resources of the Seabed beyond the Limits of National Jurisdiction”, Agenda Internacional Año XIV, N° 25, 2007, pp. 11-24

Keyuan Zou, Global Commons and the Law of the Sea, Publisher by Brill - Nijhoff (2018),  p.2

Monday, 14 September 2020

New Book : THE FUNCTIONAL–COST ANALYSIS AND TURNOVER CAPITAL MANAGEMENT

ARJIL TM


 

A new book is published by the Arab Journal of International Law, the following is a brief overview about it:


A collective monograph ‘The functional–cost analysis and turnover capital management’  is a unique manuscript, concretely emphasizing  the role of functional–cost analysis in the turnover capital management.

The research is conducted  on trends’ data of the real sector of the Russian economy over a long-term period.

The manuscript provides a complete and systematic interpretation of the category “capital” through the understanding of its formation characteristics.

The paper introduces the theoretical and methodological foundations of organization improvement and the conducting of the functional–cost analysis in contemporary conditions. The quantitative relation between production quality with the manufacturing cost as well as sales volume is particularly examined. The authors pay special attention to methodological foundations of the functional–cost analysis,  which they have developed in order to demonstrate the application of the functional–cost analysis in the sphere of management of production companies within new economic activity conditions. The conception of the functional–cost analysis management is introduced, including its organizational structure, the financial mechanism and incentives for the application and development of its results within the process of transition to a market economy.

The book is recommended for production enterprise managers’ training, high-schools’ staff, economists, scientists, as well as post-graduate students. 

Monday, 7 September 2020

Call for papers : Environmental Problems in the Arab World under social sciences scrutiny

ARJIL TM

 




Arab Journal of International Law- ARJIL-

Research unit: "Social Sciences and Climate Change"

Special issue:

 Environmental Problems in the Arab World  under social sciences scrutiny

The deadline for receipt of final proposals and the abstract is set for January 31, 2021

 

From the late sixties of the 20th century, the environmental problem has occupied a prominent position in the political and social systems of developed countries. In this regard, many social movements calling for the preservation of the environment have emerged. For its part, scientific research has shown the extent to which industrial progress and consumerist society have adverse effects on various areas of the environment, such as the deterioration of biodiversity, increasing rates of pollution, as well as the impact of climate change on ecosystems.

Many countries have responded to these challenges by developing public environmental policies of a transversal nature. On the one hand, the States first tried to maintain the requirements of economic development, taking into account the environmental dimension; and on the other hand, they also sought to diffuse an environmental culture within the social system as a long-term solution.

The authorities are aware of this problem, of its multidimensional nature. In this context, cooperation between actors has considerably extended to all levels: local, regional, national and international. It always takes place within the framework of a compromise of collective efforts, likely to limit or, at least, to reduce the degradation of the environment and its profound consequences.

The importance given to the issue of environmental degradation has led to a series of international conferences aimed at protecting the environment: namely, the United Nations Conference on the Environment (Stockholm, 1972) and the Rio Earth Summit (1992). The encouragement of expertise and scientific research on climate change was also advocated by such organizations as (IPCC, UNEP), as well as through the development of legal standards for the protection of the environment (the 1992 Convention on Biological Diversity and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, 1992) and the implementation of environmental policies (Agenda 21).

In this context, the development model adopted by the Developing Countries (DCs), including the Arab countries, was a model of dependence (see Samir Amin, Le developpement inegal, 1973). This model attempted to imitate Western industrial models and sought to integrate globalized economies. The effects of climate change ignore political borders (see Ulrich Beck, Risk society) and its threats are unevenly distributed across countries, generations, social groups and men and women alike.

Arab countries and societies are marked by cultural and political diversity, as well as by the diversity of economic structures, the abundance of natural resources and the differences in modes of social organization.

The Arab region is characterized by the abundance of fossil fuel resources, insufficient rainfall, scarcity of water resources and massive import of agricultural products.[1]

In addition, the Arab region's population is steadily increasing; cities are experiencing unsustainable urbanization, and the consumption of water, energy and food is growing steadily. A finding that exacerbates the risks of biosphere pollution and its diversity.

In the context of local and international social dynamics which call into question the preservation of the environment and which accelerate the cycle of negative impacts of climate change, the individual and society are subjected in various forms and to varying degrees to the hazards of these changes. Consequently, smoothing out the difficulties generated undoubtedly requires the implementation of realistic public policies, so as to be able to deal with the environmental problems that worsen therein, with the intention of changing behavior and social action, in order to reduce the major risks of environmental deterioration and its negative impacts on social life.

The chronology of the process of adverse impacts of environmental change in general, and the issue of climate change in particular, have raised the responsibility of developed countries, as in the case of the Kyoto Protocol of 1997. Therefore, taking into account their economic models, developing countries reject any responsibility linked to the causes of climate change, and at the same time demand their rights to development far from the requirements and environmental conditions that will be unfavorable to them.

Also, extreme climate changes, as major challenges for Arab countries, are becoming global concerns, which require mitigation, adaptation and resilience strategies, given their universal, regional, national and even local character.

Taking into account the interferences and interactions in today's world and whatever part of the responsibility the industrialized Western countries may have, the Arab States are imperatively called upon to negotiate, beyond geographical considerations. Therefore, the cooperative approach assumes that the international community believes in the value of joint action to mitigate the consequences of climate change and to ensure the means to adapt to it in a context of security and danger.

Arab countries are not alone in having to protect humanity's accomplishments in the face of global climate threats and dangers. Rather, it is up to all actors and political systems to defend the sustainability of human life, and to consider that the natural environment is only one component of this sustainability and not an end in itself.

With this in mind, each generation must meet its needs without incurring debts that they cannot deal with. This definition implies the non-accumulation of environmental debt (which results from environmental pollution and the depletion of natural resources), financial debt (through irrational borrowing), social debt (neglecting investment in human development), and demographic debt (allowing disorganized population growth and high rates of urbanization).

What are the achievements of the Arab countries during a quarter of a century of global climate negotiations (1995-2020)? The answer to this question is not intended to reveal what the Arab parties have achieved in the rounds of climate negotiations since the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC, 1992) [2], but rather, to examine their programs, their local, regional and international actions to face the threats of climate change.

These countries remain, however, vulnerable to sudden and dramatic fluctuations in temperature, extreme weather phenomena, hurricanes, heavy flooding followed by periods of drought, as well as desertification and the loss of herbaceous and humid zones.

It should be noted that the processes of global climate negotiations have gone through many phases, primarily related to global environmental problems, including those to which individuals or groups have tried to draw attention, or the efforts of international institutions such as global civil society or governmental organizations, international non-governmental organizations, multinational corporations, regional unions or states. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change contributed to the creation of the Conference of the Parties (COP) as the governing body of the convention adopted at the Rio de Janeiro Summit in Brazil in 1992. Apart from the European Union, the conference comprises all countries which have ratified the agreement.

On December 11, 1997 The Kyoto Protocol was adopted. Compared to 1990 rates, the committed countries agreed to reduce their GHG emissions by at least 5% over the period 2008-2012. They collectively achieved this objective ( with a decrease of more than 20%). The Conference of the Parties (COP) decided to continue negotiations in order to combat the harmful effects of climate change on humans and their environment. This period was called the first stage of engagement.

A second engagement stage of the protocol was set at the Doha summit in December 2012. It ran from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2020, where the COP held in Doha on December 8, 2012 emphasized the need to increase GHG reduction rates in industrialized countries to reach an average of 18%. The European Union, for its part, had committed to reducing its GHG emissions by 40% by 2030 compared to 1990 baseline year.

The Paris Agreement (2015) states that "This Agreement, by contributing to the implementation of the Convention, including its objective, aims to strengthen the global response to the threat of climate change, in the context of sustainable development and the fight against poverty (...), However, this Agreement shall be implemented in compliance with the concept of equity and specific yet distinct obligations and respective capacities, taking into account various national situations ".

The response to environmental challenges led 157 states to sign the Paris Agreement at the United Nations headquarters in New York on April 22, 2016 [3]. Therefore, and given the critical and universal nature of the challenges to be addressed, we notice that the international response to initiate international climate negotiations requires the joint efforts and the involvement of all States, including Arab States.

In the same spirit, Morocco hosted COP 22, from November 7 to 18, 2016, which saw the first session of the Conference of the Parties acting as a meeting of the parties to the Paris Agreement, and the launch of an action plan to enforce the provisions of the Paris Agreement by 2018-2025. This is what the Conference decided in the "Marrakesh Declaration" with the aim of achievement of objectives. A third period of global climate negotiations is expected to begin after the Paris agreement on climate change is finalized.

However, it should be noted that the international economic system based on the dynamics of competition (to obtain the most gains), negotiations (reaching agreements beneficial to the actors) and conflicts (on natural resources and fossil energy) calls into question normative efforts and international cooperation. To ensure the supremacy and continuity of the status quo, the international system recognizes only power, the balance of power and the issues of hegemony. It therefore seems essential to understand the international reality in the context of anarchy, the interplay of interests and influence and the massive exploitation of natural resources in the service of human beings.

The Arab Journal of International Law -ARJIL- aims at studying, analyzing and discussing the dimensions of environmental problems, which can allow us to grasp what happened in a quarter of a century of international climate negotiations (1995-2020), in particular the role and contribution of the Arab States. This scientific effort will enable us to link previous negotiations with both the problems of Arab society and to the various threats and pressures to which the Arab region is exposed, and with the capacity of Arab political systems to formulate strategies for adapting to climate change and tackling its negative impacts, while being able to respond to them in a more effective and efficient manner; otherwise these systems will be exposed to increased risks of instability and fragility.

After this general overview of environmental issues in the Arab world in the light of social sciences, the Research Unit, "Social Sciences and Climate Change", wishes to invite you to send your contributions taking into account the following themes:

-International climate negotiations and stakeholders' policies and behaviors.

-     International climate responsibility and the risks of climate change in international law.

-     Arab public policies for climate change: risks and opportunities.

-     Conflict over limited resources and problems of unlimited economic growth.

-     Climate change and peace and security in the Arab World (environmental refugees, conflicts over resources, pollution of the seas and depletion of marine stocks).

-     Ecological transition and green economy between science and neoliberal ideology.

-     International and regional cooperation channels in the context of conflicts of interest and the scarcity of natural resources.

-     Social constructions of the environmental problem in the Arab region through the experiences of the Arab countries.

-     Analysis of socio-environmental behaviors in the Arab world and their interactions with social affiliations;

-     The role of social, political, economic and civil actors in understanding the environmental problem in Arab countries, and the extent of their capacity to respond to the challenges posed by the environmental dimension.

-     Local expertise in the management and preservation of commonly shared resources and consequences of economic globalization dynamics.

- Ecological debt and sustainability and social inequality.

- Responsibility to future generations and ethical concerns with regard to acknowledging reliance on nature's fragility.

Submission modalities

Contribution proposals will be subject to review by the Scientific Committee.

Contribution proposals can be submitted in the following languages: Arabic, English, French.

    Research papers(previously unpublished) would be approved based on academic criteria for writing and documentation.

    Studies and research papers will be subject to double-blind evaluation.

    Studies written in Arabic, English and French will be accepted.

    Researchers wishing to publish their studies in ARJIL must send their proposals (WORD format), and attach a scientific biography of the author (PDF Format).

    The studies sent must contain between 5,000 and 6,000 words (Font: Times New Roman).

Drafting rules

    Books: The author's name, the title of the book, the name of the translator if applicable (place of publication: publisher, date of publication).

    Magazines: Author name, article title, journal title, edition (place of publication: publisher, date of publication).

    Electronic Resources: Only internationally recognized electronic sites (e.g: the UN site) will be accepted. Must be mentioned: The title of the electronic site and the date of consultation. URL is required.

    References: the researcher is called upon to be precise in his/her references.

The structure of the study is described below

General introduction: It should briefly contain the key concepts, the methodology adopted and the main subject matter.

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The conclusion: It must be reserved for summaries and results; it cannot be a research review. The conclusion should not contain any reference.

Important Notes

ARJIL warns against any counterfeiting or illegal reproduction.

ARJIL publications do not necessarily reflect the positions of the editors of the ARJIL International Law project.

The deadline for receipt of final proposals and the summary is set for January 31, 2021.

Contributions proposals will be sent to the following e-mail address:arjil.org@gmail.com

 


[1]     Bouziane Semmoud. Maghreb Moyen - Orient dans la globalisation (Paris: Armand Colin, 2010).

[2]      United Nations Framework Convention On Climate Change (Unfcc), (1992), accessed June26, 2020 (https://unfccc.int/resource/docs/convkp/conveng.pdf

[3]      (https://onu.delegfrance.org/Ceremonie-de-signature-de-l-Accord-de-Paris), accessed June 27, 2020.


Sunday, 28 June 2020

Editorial Board

ARJIL TM


Editor in Chief

  •   El Houcine Chougrani, Professor of International Law and International Relations at the Cadi Ayyad University, Faculty of Law, Economics and Social Sciences. Marrakech, Morocco

Scientific Committee - English Department 

  •  Anna Chebotareva, Professor and Head of the Department Administrative Law, Environmental Law, Information Law. Moscow State University of Railway Engineering, Russia 
  • Asem Khalil, Professor of Public Law, H.H. Shaikh Hamad Bin Khalifa Al-Thani Chair in Constitutional and International Law, Birzeit University. 
  •  Aziz Radi , Professor of Business management at Cadi Ayyad University, Faculty of Law, Economics and Social Sciences. Marrakesh, Morocco 
  • Faisal Ben Halilou, Professor at faculty of law, Sharjah University, United Arab Emirates        
  •  Hadia Yahiaoui, Professor of Political Science at Abbès Laghrour University, Algeria     
  •  Hali Ahmed, Professor at the Regional Center for Professions of Education and Training in Oujda, PhD in Public Law, Morocco        
  •  Louay Abdelfettah, Professor of International at university of Mohammed I  Faculty of Law, Economics and Social Sciences. Oujda, Morocco        
  • Martin Faix, Lectures International Law at the Palacký University in Olomouc and the Charles University . Prague, Czech Republic          
  •  Mohamed Behnassi, Senior Researcher Professor of International Law at Ibn Zohr University,  Faculty of Law, Economics and Social Sciences. Agadir, Morocco    
  • Naser Abdel Raheem Al Ali, Professor, Law Institute of the Russian University of Transport, Russia   
  •  Nawar Jaleel Hashim, Professor of  international studies at the Al Mustansiriya, University of Baghdad, Iraq 
  • Rabah AYNAOU,  Professor of International Law, Mohammed I University  Faculty of Law, Economics and Social Sciences. Oujda- Morocco                                                                      
  • Safwan Maqsood Khaleel, Professor of Public International Law at University of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates
  • Said Saddiki, Professor of International Law and International Relations at the  Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University,  Faculty of Law, Economics and Social Sciences. Fez, Morocco                                                               
  • Scientific Committee - Arabic Department  

  •  Abdelgaffar Rashad, Professor of Politics, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt   
  • Abdelhamid Abidi, Professor, Professor of Sociology, University of  Carthage, Tunis
  • Abderrahim Khalisse, Professor of public Law at Ibn Zohr University,  Faculty of Law, Economics and Social Sciences. Agadir Morocco    
  • Aboulkasem Ziani, Professor of sociology, Cadi Ayyad University, Marrakech, Morocco              
  •  Ahmed Ali Salem , Associate Dean and Professor, College of Humanities and Social Sciences, Zayed University, United Arab Emirates 
  • Aiman Salama, Professor of International Law, Egypt
  • Asem Khalil, Professor of Public Law, H.H. Shaikh Hamad Bin Khalifa Al-Thani Chair in Constitutional and International Law, Birzeit University. 
  • Bachir Motaki, Professor of Politics, Sultan Moulay Suleiman University,  Faculty of Law, Economics and Social Sciences.Beni Mellal, Morocco 
  • Brahim El Morchid, Professor of Political Economy at Cadi Ayyad University , Faculty of Law, Economics and Social Sciences. Marrakesh, Morocco   
  • Driss Lagrini , Professor of International Law and International Relations at Cadi Ayyad University,  Faculty of Law, Economics and Social Sciences. Marrakech, Morocco  
  • Faisal Ben Halilou, Professor at faculty of law, Sharjah University, United Arab Emirates 
  • Louay Abdelfettah, Professor of International at Mohammed I university,  Faculty of Law, Economics and Social Sciences. Oujda, Morocco 
  • Mahdi Dahab, Professor of political science, International University of Africa, Khartoum. Sudan 
  •  Mohamed Chafi, Professor of Private Law, University of Cadi Ayyad , Faculty of Law, Economics and Social Sciences. Marrakesh, Morocco   
  • Mohamed Lamsadi, Professor of Public Finance, Cadi Ayyad University, Faculty of Law, Economics and Social Sciences. Marrakesh, Morocco 
  • Mohammed Elbazzaz, Professor of International Law, University of Moulay Ismail, Faculty of Law, Economics and Social Sciences. Meknes Morocco  
  • Naser Abdel Raheem Al Ali, Professor, Law Institute of the Russian University of Transport. Russia
  • Nawar Jaleel Hashim, Professor of  international studies at the Al Mustansiriya, University of Baghdad. Iraq                         
  • Rachid EL-Bazzim, Associate Professor of public Law at Ibn Zohr University,  Faculty of Law, Economics and Social Sciences. Morocco                                         
  •  Rachid Mouqtadir, Professor of Political Science and constutional law in the University of Hassan II,  Faculty of Law, Economics and Social Sciences. Casablanca, Morocco
  •   Radwan Mahmoud Al-Majali, Professor, Department of political Science, University of Mu'tah, Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
  •  Rami Abu Shehab, Lecturer, Qatar University. Qatar
  • Salah Salem, Professor of political science, Cairo university, Egypt 
  •   Sania El-Husseini, Professor of political science at the Arab-American University in Palestine, Ramallah. Palestine 
  • Sourour Talbi, Head of "JiL Scientific Research Center" University of Algeria. Algeria
  • Youssef Antar, Professor of International Law, University of Mohammed I, Nador, Morocco
  • Youssef DAHRAJI, Professor of political science, Faculty of Law, Economics and Social Sciences. Marrakech, Morocco
  • Khalid ElKaddaoui, PhD in in public law, Member of the Moroccan Observatory for Future Generations in (MOROFUGE). Morocco                                   


Scientific Committee - French Department

  • Abdelmalek El Ouazzani, Professor of Political science, Cadi Ayyad University, Faculty of Law, Economics and Social Sciences. Marrakech, Morocco   
  •  Aziz Radi, Professor of Business management, Cadi Ayyad University, Faculty of Law, Economics and Social Sciences. Marrakesh, Morocco
  • Brahim El Morchid, Professor of Political Economy,Cadi Ayyad University , Faculty of Law, Economics and Social Sciences. Marrakesh, Morocco 
  •  M'hammed Belarbi, Professor of Political science, Cadi Ayyad University, Faculty of Law, Economics and Social Sciences. Marrakech, Morocco 
  •  Mohamed Chafi, Professor of Private Law, University of Cadi Ayyad, Faculty of Law, Economics and Social Sciences. Marrakesh, Morocco
  • Mohamed Saddougui, Professor of Public Law, University of Mohamed I, Faculty of Law, Economics and Social Sciences. Oujda, Morocco 
  • Mohammed EL WALI , professor at the National School of Commerce and Management in Oujda, Morocco
  • Mohammed Nachtaoui, Professor of International Law, Cadi Ayyad University,  Faculty of Law, Economics and Social Sciences. Marrakech, Morocco
  • Mustapha Ezzahiri , Professor of Economy, University of Chouaïb Doukkali, Faculty of Law, Economics and Social Sciences. El Jadida, Morocco 
  •  Omar Qaissi , Professor of International Law, University Ibn Zohr, Faculty of Law, Economics and Social Sciences. Agadir, Morocco 
  • Rachid El-Bazzim, Professor of public Law at Ibn Zohr University, Faculty of Law, Economics and Social Sciences. Agadir, Morocco  
  • Said Aghrib, Professor of International Economic Law at Cadi Ayyad University,  Faculty of Law, Economics and Social Sciences. Marrakech, Morocco 
  • Walid Ben Rahma, Professor of international law at the Tunis University, Tunis                                                                                                                                                               

Editing and linguistic verification                                                                             

  • Abdelmajid Talha, Professor of Arabic Language , Moulay Ismail University, Errachidia, Morocco  
  •  Ali Saddiki, Professor of Arabic Language, University of Mohammed I Nador, Morocco 
  •  El Hassane Herrag, Professor, University Mohamed 1 Oujda, Morocco
  • Hicham Feth, Professor of Linguistics, Faculty of Arabic Language, Cadi Ayyad University. Marrakech, Morocco
  •  Abdelkrim Benqdad, EFL Fulbright teacher (Indiana university 2017), ARJIL’s English Department, Morocco                                                                                                                           

                                                   

   


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