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Showing posts with label English. Show all posts
Showing posts with label English. Show all posts

Thursday, 17 June 2021

Call for papers: Climate Change at the Crossroads of Science


 Climate change, long disputed, is now scientifically proven. The consequences it has on our environment, including our quality of life, are only just beginning to be understood. Scientific knowledge is being organized, but the entire fields of investigation remain unexplored. This topic has raised so many controversies for the implementation of solutions.

Public policies are emerging at the level of States and the international community, but they are not up to the challenges raised.

The question is how to stop them, or at least to reduce them. Will the measures that have been taken at various international summits, notably Kyoto, Copenhagen and, recently, Paris, be enough to stop the machine? This is not certain, because these measures are timid and remain subject to the goodwill of States. In other words, it would be enough for a single powerful nation, such as the United States, to denounce them for everything to start again. But what if technology could heal the planet? Geoengineering (deliberate manipulation of the climate) is among the solutions being explored to deal with this problem[1].

Anthropogenic climate change is a major issue in science and geopolitics, affecting a growing number of research communities, partners and political actors. In the same sense, a unique intergovernmental body of expertise - the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (now IPCC) - has played a decisive role in the reconfiguration of the field and tends today to become an example of international expertise. Today, this discipline is increasingly discussed in scientific circles[2].

The UN estimates that the latest scientific assessment of ozone depletion, conducted in 2018, shows that parts of the ozone layer have been recovering at a rate of 1 to 3 percent per decade since 2000. At the projected rate, Northern Hemisphere ozone will fully recover by the 2030s. The Southern Hemisphere will follow in the 2050s and the polar regions by 2060[3]. However, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is calling for "continued vigilance" on the ozone layer, as climate change could slow its recovery[4].

The current pandemic of COVID-19 has highlighted the close spatial relationships between ecosystems, human activities and health in many ways. In this regard, the effects of climate change on health have been widely discussed; climate change must be seen primarily as a factor amplifying already existing health problems[5].

From the first signs of climate change, states have been faced with two strategies: Mitigation or Adaptation[6]. In other words, they must address the anthropogenic sources that promote climate change to minimize its magnitude or adapt to climate change. Indeed, the last decades have been particularly devoted to the mitigation strategy by establishing an international system of control of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It is clear that the results obtained by opting for the first strategy now oblige States to seriously consider the adaptation strategy, which also consists of adapting to climate change.

The Paris Climate Agreement, signed on December 12, 2015 at the end of COP 21, sets the goal of limiting global warming to well below 2°C, targeting the 1.5°C mark. It also provides for an increase in the budget of the Green Climate Fund adopted in 2010 at the Cancún Conference, with the aim of reaching $100 billion per year in 2020; a new floor will be set in 2025.

Encouraging green investments and limiting CO2 emissions from traditional economic activity will require significant changes in the regulatory environment for all sectors of the economy, including energy production, agriculture, transportation, industrial production and services. In a similar vein, the European Union, through its New Green Deal initiative, and U.S. President Joe Biden have committed to achieving carbon neutrality for the European and U.S. economies by 2050. These commitments will require a reduction in CO2 emissions and a transition to a global green economy. At the same time, drastic measures will have to be taken to make CO2 emissions more expensive and to phase out or significantly reduce the use of traditional energy sources, namely oil and gas.

However, the international legal regime on climate change is hampered by its non-coercive nature, and the lack of compliance with commitments. As an illustration, with regard to the Paris Agreement, in 2019, of the 197 states that have ratified the treaty, only 58 have adopted measures to reduce their GHG emissions by 2030 and 16 of these have taken appropriate action with their climate commitments[7].

The COP 26 to be held in November 2021 in Glasgow, UK, will present a crucial opportunity to discuss and finalize the remaining issues of the implementation of the Paris Agreement.

Moreover, because of the legal nature of the Agreement, there are a multitude of more permissive secondary legislation decisions that "recommend", "invite", "encourage", etc.[8]. The norms are even often interpreted by the States as simple indications or general directives[9].

The humanities and social sciences will have to enter an era of profound transformation if they are to continue to play a useful role in environmental protection. It may be easy to integrate the general concept of climate change into public policies or regulations. However, a paradigm shift seems inevitable to make adaptation measures effective and capable of increasing people's resilience.

Adaptation to climate change will require the contribution of several fields of the humanities and social sciences, including: political science, international relations, public security, economics, and immigration, land use planning, environment, new information and communication technologies (ICT), etc.

Global climate change is causing seasonal and permanent internal and international migration. Although the distinction between political refugees, economic migrants and environmental migrants is difficult to make, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change predicts that 150 million people will be forced to move by 2050 due to global warming and climate change[10]. The International Organization for Migration (IOM), for its part, suggests that 200 million environmental migrants[11] will be displaced. However, today, there is no legal instrument, even indirect, to ensure the protection of these migrants.

Climate change has had severe and irreversible effects on the natural systems that underpin the sustainability of human well-being. Not only will climate change destroy human and physical capital, but it will also cause dramatic changes in ecosystems and economic activities[12].

The responsibility of companies in the increase of greenhouse gas emissions is important, especially in the energy, industry, real estate and transportation sectors. The real estate sector, mainly through its energy consumption, is responsible for about 40% of the world's greenhouse gas emissions[13]. According to experts, the energy sector is also responsible for two thirds of total greenhouse gas emissions today[14]. The increase in energy needs will therefore have irreversible impacts on the climate if we do not move towards carbon neutral energy sources. International air transport is particularly affected by CO2 emissions, which are currently responsible for about 2% of global emissions. According to the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) trend scenario projections, GHG emissions from the sector are expected to increase by 300% by 2050[15]. How can companies be encouraged to reduce their emissions? What are the most appropriate tools (incentives or constraints, legal or economic tools, regulation or self-regulation)? How can multinational companies be better understood from a legal point of view? What are the specific challenges of the African continent?

This collective edition will be an opportunity to conduct a multidisciplinary reflection, to cross the views and maintain a collaborative dynamic between different stakeholders. The proposals of communication must be in line with the following track themes. However, other proposals for papers may be accepted under certain conditions. Proposals dealing with developing countries and climate change will be particularly appreciated. The track themes are:

1. Humanities, law and climate change;

2. International environmental protection instruments and climate change;

3. Climate change and geoengineering;

4. Climate change, adaptation and mitigation;

5. Paris Agreement and secondary legislation;

6. Climate change and migratory flows;

7. Business and climate change;

8. Green economies and climate change;

9. Science, expertise and international law on climate change;

10. Climate change and state responsibility;

11. Courts, law and climate change.


Important Dates and Submission Details:

-       September 10, 2021: Abstract submission (300 words responding to what, why, and how?) including full name, affiliation, email, and short bio.

-       September 25, 2021: Notification of the abstracts + writing guidelines.

-       December 31, 2021: Final paper submission.

-       2022, Publication.


Note: The owners of published papers cannot claim any material privilege for publication.

Initial and final papers shall be sent to the following e-mail:

[1] Ait Ali Nadia, La géo-ingénierie climatique : approche complémentaire ou contradictoire aux efforts d’atténuation des émissions de gaz à effet de serre ?, consulté le 18/5/2021 sur

[2] Dalmedico Amy Dahan & Guillemot Hélène, « Changement climatique : Dynamiques scientifiques, expertise, enjeux géopolitiques », Sociologie du travail [Online], Vol. 48 - n° 3 | Juillet-Septembre 2006, Online since 21 March 2008, connection on 18 May 2021. URL :

[3] « La couche d’ozone est sur la voie de la guérison mais il faut rester vigilant (ONU), consulté le 18/05/2021 sur

[3] Les changements climatiques retarderont le rétablissement de la couche d’ozone, consulté le 18/05/2021 sur

[4] Les changements climatiques retarderont le rétablissement de la couche d’ozone, consulté le 18/05/2021 sur

[5] Mcmichael A.J. & al., Climate change and the health of nations: famines, fevers, and the fate of populations (New York: Oxford University Press, 2017).

[6] Richard Elsa, L’adaptation aux changements climatiques (Paris : PU Rennes, 201).

[7] Claudia Cohen, Accord de Paris : pourquoi les pays ne sont pas à la hauteur de leurs engagements, consulté le 18/05/2021 sur

[8] El Bazzim Rachid, La nature juridique des CDN, in Ckakrani Hussein et Ghali Mohammed, Changements climatiques : vers une compréhension des conflits et des stratégies climatiques (Marrakech, centre Cadi Ayyad, 2018), pp. 33-64.

[9] Lassus saint — Geniès Géraud, Droit international du climat et aspect économique du défi climatique (Paris : Éditions A. Pedone, 2017), p.72.


[10] Capelle, Guillaume. « Migrations et environnement. L’État confronté au changement climatique », Thierry de Montbrial éd., Gouverner aujourd’hui ? Ramses 2013. Institut français des relations internationales, 2012, pp. 44-47

[11] Baher Kamal, Climate Migrants Might Reach One Billion by 2050, consulté le 18/5/2021 sur

[11] Dogru & al., “Climate change: Vulnerability and resilience of tourism and the entire economy”, Tourism Management, vol. 72, 2019, pp. 292-305.

[12] Dogru & al., “Climate change: Vulnerability and resilience of tourism and the entire economy”, Tourism Management, vol. 72, 2019, pp. 292-305

[13] UNEP, Les émissions du secteur du bâtiment ont atteint un niveau record, mais la reprise à faible intensité de carbone après la pandémie peut…, consulté le 18/5/2021 sur

[14] L’énergie dans le monde, consulté le 18/05/2021 sur

[15] Transport aérien : lancement d’une feuille de route pour développer des biocarburants de 2e génération, consulté le 18/05/2021 sur


Wednesday, 2 June 2021




It is commonly known that humankind lives in socio-cultural contexts which require the deployment of a great deal of effort to counter the challenge of living in harmony with nature and/or being reconciled with it. While nature can do without human beings, they in turn cannot live without nature. Moreover, when the environment and natural resources deteriorate due to human activity (IPCC, 1990), nature continues to revolt against human abuse, as people are exposed to natural disasters such as droughts, floods, and desertification, according to regions’ degree of awareness and adaptation strategies.

Due to lack of adequate infrastructure that should help resist climate change and allow more resilience, the human race is punished by displacement, migration, and flight to environmentally safe places (Climate Refugees), plants and wild species are exposed to extinction, retreat, and damage as well. However, national sovereignty limits the flow of migration as the state exercises “legitimate violence” (Max Weber) within its national borders. Rather, it stokes the inner cohesion of rejecting the other (as if the “Hell Is Other People” In the words of Sartre) bearing in mind that the environment transcends national borders.

In the face of human greed (the constant search for prosperity) as well as companies (the constant search for profit), the human relationship with nature is shaken and transformed into a permanent struggle for domination, control, and the terrible exploitation of natural resources, where the whole scene turns into “Tragedy of the commons” (Garrett Hardin, 1968), which increases the consequences of a “Risk Society” (Ulrich Beck) under the influence of industrialization and the intensive resort to technology.

Moreover, in a context marked by profound societal transformations towards industrialization, there are profound contradictions between political, bureaucratic, economic, and even environmental visions, which go against finding a solution to this tragic environmental situation. With all eyes turning on the management of the human common based on the pricing of the environment, some voices reject the pricing of the world. At the same time, the liberal order continues to operate by advocating the improvement of the well-being of the individual in the short term, regardless of the rights of future generations to the enjoyment of sustainable natural resources.

From this perspective, the initiators of this collective work, entitled: “Environment, culture & society: Rupture or Interconnectivity?” invites researchers in the social sciences to submit proposals for articles focusing on the following topics:

-       Capitalism, environment, and development

-       The economic cost of environmental protection

-       The social construction of environmental concepts

-       The social construction of the environment and culture

-       Culture and environment

-       Socialization and environment

-       Social movements and the environment

-       Political thought and environmental ideas

-       The political actor and the environment

-       Ecological justice

-       Ethics and environment

-       Sustainable development or social sustainability?

-       Interest groups and the environment

-       The economy of natural resources and sustainable development

-       Intergenerational equity

-       Intergenerational solidarity

-       Ecological debt and intergenerational justice

-       The environmental culture of the actor

Important Dates and Submission Details:

-       June 30, 2021: Abstract submission (300 words responding to what, why, and how?) including full name, affiliation, email, and short bio.

-       July 15, 2021: Notification of the abstracts + writing guidelines.

-       October 1, 2021: Final paper submission.

-       February 2022, Publication.


Note: The owners of published papers cannot claim any material privilege for publication.

Initial and final papers shall be sent to the following e-mail:

Wednesday, 28 April 2021

Special issue on Eco-issues in International Law


Arab Journal of International Law (ARJIL) and the Law Institute of the Russian University of Transport are pleased to announce the publication of the 1st special issue of its annual peer-reviewed journal, ARJIL. Titled “ECO-ISSUES IN INTERNATIONAL LAW” Articles in Russian, English, and French in this issue include “The Capitalocene and the Human great Suffering”, by El Houcine Chougrani; “Legislation Act of the Russian Federation in the Context of Climate Change”, by Ivakin Viktor Ivanovich; “A Climate Refugee in Africa from an International Law perspective”, by El Houcine Chougrani, Abdedaim Battioui & Mohamed Benchekroun; “Lobbyist appropriation of the climate issue and dead ends of the energy transition”, by M’hammed Belaarbi; “The Environmental Question in the History of Economic Thought”, by Brahim Dinar; “The Arab World Facing the climate change”, by Mohammed El Wali & Mohammed Saddougui. As for articles in Arabic “Mechanisms of Capitalist Economic Growth and Environmental Problems”, by Hettabi El Mostafa; “The Public Policies confront climate change in the Arab countries. Reality and ambition”, by Kadhim Al Muqdadi; “Environmental Security in The Current International Order: Paradoxes and Challenges”, by Malika Zekhnini; “The World Trade Organization & The Environment: What interconnectedness?”, by Boubakeur Saba; “Non-Governmental Organizations and Climate Justice”, by Sidi Lemine Ould Sidi Oumar Cheikh; “Political dimensions of the climate change issue: who pays the price?”, by Ahmed Alhaqui; “Protection of Environmental Refugees in International law and Tunisian Law”, by Halima Mnasri.

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Tuesday, 10 November 2020

Call for Papers to the attention of doctoral student interested in the subject of international law of the sea


IBN HAWQAL (943-988)

 977 - The Configuration of the Earth - Surat al-Ardh - صورة الارض 

The Editorial Committee of the Arab Journal of International Law (ARJIL) launches the present call for papers to the attention of doctoral student interested in the subject of international law of the sea. It is an opportunity for doctoral student to familiarize themselves with the methodology of research, and also broaden their professional and academic network.

The oceans and seas are not ruled by a legal vacuum. On the contrary, there is a specific branch of international law[i] dedicated to them, namely the international law of the sea[ii], whose goal is to provide some rules in the conflicting relationships between States and the other physical or juridical persons in the sea.[iii]

Its historic evolution was motivated by political, economic and security interests, and more recently scientific and environmental interests, which have paved to the way to conflicting claims on the exercise of exclusive rights (sovereign and jurisdictional) by States.

Of utmost importance in the international law of the sea is the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (1982), described as “the constitution of oceans”.[iv] It provided two fundamental principles. The first concerns the principle of the freedom of navigation in the high sea, advanced by the Dutch scholar Hugo Grotius whose book “mare liberum sive de jure quod batavis competit ad indicana commercial” published in 1609[v], claimed the right to navigate and trade for any ships throughout the world.[vi] The second principle is related to the sovereignty. The Convention was thus regarded as a “gift box” for coastal States which clearly appear as the winners of the United Nations third conference on the law of the sea. Indeed, until 200 miles away from its coast, a State is not bound to establish that it has some sovereign rights, provided that it has demarcated its zone under the conditions provided by the Convention with its neighbouring or adjacent States. Once these questions are resolved, a State possesses an exclusive economic zone until 200 miles which includes the continental shelf whatever its nature and the seabed. Moreover, the coastal State may request the extension of the continental shelf until 350 miles, provided it complies with the procedure provided by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (Article 76, Annex II)[vii].

The application of the sovereignty principle may lead to a series of conflicting extension of the limits of national jurisdiction on the seabed. As far as the principle of freedom is concerned, it contributes to an abusive exploitation of natural resources qualified by the approach of “first come, first served”. Two scenarios, which according to M. Pardo, might cause undesirable consequences, namely economic injustice and risks of pollution. It is perfectly summarized as “the poor are getting poorer and poorer, the rich are getting richer and richer” [viii]. In order to create a “trilogy of needs”, between the needs of the industrialized countries, the needs of developing countries, and the needs of marine ecosystem, a fourth principle appeared, that is the world heritage of humanity enshrined in the part XI of the Convention.[ix]

In this context, the department “Seas and Oceans” submits to the interested doctoral student a non-exhaustive list of subjects which may guide to their submission. The department welcomes submissions which focus on the realities of the Arab World and the Mediterranean:

§  Delimitation and demarcation of maritime boundaries

§  Use of marine ecosystem (included the navigation)

§  Preservation of marine ecosystem

§  Marine scientific research

§  Geostrategic use of maritime zone (included MENA zone)

§  Legal Protection of maritime zone in the Arab countries

§  Coordination between scientific research and the development of Maghreb countries

Method of submission

§  The proposed submissions will be subjected to an evaluation by the editorial committee (a draft proposal of 500 words maximum)

§  The proposed submissions may be communicated in French, Arabic, and English

§  Only the proposal (unpublished) based on the scientific norms and documentation will be accepted .

§  The papers will be subjected to double blind peer review.

§  The proposals shall be in Word format, and accompanied by the author’s biography (PDF)

§  The proposals shall contain between 4000 and 4500 words (Times New Roman)



§  Books: Name of the author, the title (the place of publication: editor, date of publication).

§  Journals: Name of the author, the title of the article, the title of the journal (the place of publication: editor, date of publication).

§  Electronic resources: Only websites internationally known will be accepted (i.e. United Nations). Shall be indicated: the title of the website and the date of consultation. The URL is mandatory.



§  Introduction: It shall incorporate briefly the keywords, the methodology adopted and the main question of the article.

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§  Conclusion: It shall contain the main results. It shall not be a mere summary of the paper. No references in the conclusion.

Important Remarks

§  The ARJIL forbids any counterfeiting or illegal reproduction.

§  The publications of ARJIL do not necessarily reflect the opinions of its founders

§  The deadline for the submission of the final propositions and the brief paper is February, 28th 2021

§  The proposal shall be forwarded to the following email:


Mohamed Benchekroun

Director of the Department “Seas and Oceans”

Phone: +212 0666255383

Professor Elhoucine Chougrani

Director of the Arab Journal of International Law (ARJIL)





[i] André Monaco, Gouvernance des mers et des océans, Publisher by  ISTE (May 2, 2015)  p.22

[ii] Frederique Vallo,  La Mer et son droit, entre liberté et consensualisme, la difficile protection des espaces naturels fragiles, Publisher by Publibook (15 décembre 2009), p.12


[iii] Ibid

[iv] Donald Rothwell, The Oxford Handbook of the Law of the Sea, Publisher by OUP Oxford (2017), p.3

[v] Jill Barrett, Law of the Sea: UNCLOS as a Living Treaty.

[vi] GROTIUS (They marine), la liberté des mers /Mare Liberum, avec une introduction de Charles Leben, 2013, Coll. « Les introuvables ». In Annuaire française de droit international, volume 59, 2013, p.695

[vii] Hugo Grotius, Mare liberum, Create Space Independent Publishing by Platform (6 September 2012)

[viii] Intervention d'Élie Jarmache, Chargé de mission au secrétariat général de la mer, dirige la délégation française à la commission des limites du plateau continental à New York, membre de la commission juridique et technique de l’Autorité internationale des fonds marins, au colloque "Les enjeux maritimes du monde et de la France" du 20 mars 2017.


[ix] Tulio Scovazz,  “ The Concept of Common Heritage of Mankind  and the Genetic Resources of the Seabed beyond the Limits of National Jurisdiction”, Agenda Internacional Año XIV, N° 25, 2007, pp. 11-24

Keyuan Zou, Global Commons and the Law of the Sea, Publisher by Brill - Nijhoff (2018),  p.2

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